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APA Style: Parenthetical and Narrative Citations

"In-text citations have two formats: parenthetical and narrative."

A narrative citation incorporates the author(s) into the text as part of the sentence.

A parenthetical citation presents citation information in parentheses. "A parenthetical citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence."

Narrative citation example:

Alexander (2018)

Parenthetical citation example:

(Alexander, 2018)

(Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 262–263)